Berlin Wall was a barrier separating West Berlin from East Berlin and the rest of East Germany. The longer 'inner German border' demarcated the remainder of the East-West German border between the two states. Both borders were part of the Iron Curtain.
The wall separated East Berlin and West Berlin for 28 years, from the day construction began on August 13, 1961 until it was dismantled in 1989, and was considered to be a longtime symbol of the Iron Curtain. During this period, at least 133 people were confirmed killed trying to cross the Wall into West Berlin, according to official figures.However, a prominent victims' group claims that more than 200 people had been killed trying to flee from East to West Berlin. The DDR/East German government gave shooting orders to border guards dealing with defectors; such orders are not the same as shoot to kill orders which DDR officials have denied exist.
When the East German government announced on November 9, 1989, after several weeks of civil unrest, that visits in West Germany and West Berlin would be permitted, crowds of East Germans climbed onto and crossed the wall, joined by West Germans on the other side in a celebratory atmosphere. Over the next few weeks, parts of the wall were chipped away by a euphoric public and by souvenir hunters; industrial equipment was later used to remove almost all of the rest of it.
The fall of the Berlin Wall paved the way for German reunification, which was formally concluded on October 3, 1990.

When the wall has fallen...

Building the wall in 1961.

Then...

...and now

Potzdamer Platz
Potzdamer Platz  
View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the wall's infamous "death strip"

Murkreutzberg

View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the wall's infamous "death strip"

Then...

and now.

Checkpoint Charlie Sovjet tanks on Leipziger Platz 17 June 1953.

Checkpoint Charlie

Soviet tanks on Leipziger Platz 17 June 1953.

Sovjettanks on the sector border in the Friedrichstrasse 28 October 1961. The wall at the Heidelberger Strasse (1981).
Sovjettanks on the sector border in the Friedrichstrasse 28 October 1961.

The wall at the Heidelberger Strasse (1981).

Bernauer Strasse. Gable as a part of the wall. Chausseestrasse in Wedding (1966).

Bernauer Strasse. Gable as a part of the wall.

Chausseestrasse in Wedding (1966).

Closed S-Bahnstation Bornholmer Strasse. Flight from the east by the window. The sidewalk in front of the houses was already Western Berlin..

Closed S-Bahnstation Bornholmer Strasse.

Flight from the east by the window. The sidewalk in front of the houses was already Western Berlin..
View from the roof of the Reichstag on the Wall and the Brandenburger Tor. Potzdamer Platz 1965.
View from the roof of the Reichstag on the Wall and the Brandenburger Tor.

Potzdamer Platz 1965.

Confrontation of the Americans and Sovjets at Checkpoint Charlie 26 October 1961. Construction of the Wall 13 August 1961.
Confrontation of the Americans and Sovjets at Checkpoint Charlie 26 October 1961.

Construction of the Wall 13 August 1961.

 

Mark where the wall has stood.

Mark where the wall stood.

East-side-gallery Muhlenstrasse 1990